Glossary

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3

30-Sheet Poster

see Poster

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8

8-Sheet Poster

see Junior Poster

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A

Advertiser Market (Trading Area)

A custom market (often a group of counties) defined by an advertiser or retailer. The market definition is typically based on sales or other marketing criteria relevant to the product. (See Custom Market)

Allotment

The number of units required to achieve a desired GRP level in a market. Traditional poster panel showings consist of a quantity of displays that will vary by the size of the audience and the size of the market population. Traditional circulation (DEC) based allotments will differ from EYES ON allotments.

Alternative Media

Out of media that is used to create customized advertising programs that generally target specific consumer audiences. Alternative Out of Home media includes, but is not limited to: arena and stadiums, interior placed based, convenience stores, video networks, health clubs/restaurants/bars, exterior placed based (i.e. airborne, marine, resorts and leisure).

AADT - Annual Average Daily Traffic

Measurement representing the total number of vehicles passing a specific highway location, based on 24 hour counts taken over an entire year. Counts are adjusted to an estimate of annual average daily traffic; taking into account seasonal variance, weekly changes and other factors. AADT's are input used by TAB to develop DECs.

Approach

The distance measured along the line of travel from the point where an advertising unit first becomes fully visible to the point where the copy is no longer readable.

Audience Delivery

The size of an audience that notices Out of Home advertising usually measured over one or more weeks. Audience delivery can be represented using several definitions, including: EYES ON Impressions (EOIs), EYES ON ratings, gross impressions or rating points, and reach & frequency.

Audited Circulation

The TAB independently audits inventory locations and collects and aggregates circulation data for Out of Home media according to established national procedures approved by the buy and seller community.

Awareness

The recalled recognition of an Out of Home advertising message by an individual or audience. Ad awareness is influenced by creative copy and the consumer's relationship with the product or category. (see Noticing and Engagement).

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B

Bi-directional diagnostics

Two-way communication between a display and its controller. Bi-directional diagnostics assist in pre-maintenance, maintenance, and troubleshooting.

Billboard

Large format advertising displays intended for viewing from extended distances, generally more than 50 feet. Billboard displays include, but not limited to: 30-sheet posters, 8-sheet posters, vinyl-wrapped posters, and bulletins.

Bleed

Display area which extends beyond the Live Copy Area, often to the edge of the finished size.

Bulletin

The largest standardized Out of Home format; typically measuring 14' x 48' in overall size. Sold either as permanent displays or in rotary packages.

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C

Calibration

Measuring and adjusting both the color and the intensity of individual pixels to ensure image consistency across the entire display.

Campaign Delivery

The audience delivered by an OOH advertising schedule, expressed in EYES ON Impressions (EOIs) and/or EYES_ON Gross Rating Points (GRPs). Reach and Frequency can also be used. Campaign delivery is most valuable when expressed using the demographic target and market definition of the advertiser.

Cancellation Period

A specified period of time when a contract can be terminated.

Candela (cd)

(can dell' ah) a measurement of directional light intensity from a point source.

CBSA (Core Based Statistical Area)

Defined by the United States Office of Management and Budget, a metropolitan area(s) within larger markets (e.g. DMAs) containing a substantial population nucleus, together with adjacent communities having a high degree of economic and social integration with that core. CBSA's are a standard geography for buying and selling media.

Center-to-center spacing

The distance between the center point of one pixel and the center of an adjacent pixel on a video or message center display. Also know as pitch.

Character height

Height of the largest letter that can be displayed on a message center; height of a seven-pixel high character according to center-to-center spacing (e.g., 3.0" center-to-center spacing x 7 pixels = 21" character height).

Charting

The process of selecting and scheduling individual unit locations to maximize Out of Home advertising objectives.

Circulation

A measurement of traffic volume in a market. Circulation only estimates the number of people with an opportunity to see an Out of Home display and, therefore, is no longer a credible measure of an Out of Home audience and is out of step with other media metrics.

Cluster

A grouping of LEDs that act as a single pixel.

Color accuracy

Conformity or exactness of color match, clarity and accuracy within the individual primary color groups of red, green and blue.

Color shift

The angle of viewing off axis where the slightest change in pixel coloration occurs.

Color temperature

The degree of hotness or coolness of a color, measured in degrees Kelvin. If a video display is said to have a color temperature of 7,000° Kelvin, for example, the whites have the same shade as a piece of pure carbon heated to that temperature. Low color temperatures have a shift toward red, and high color temperatures have a shift toward blue. The standard white for NTSC in the United States is 6,500° Kelvin.

Commercial Audience

Audience estimates of people exposed to actual advertising. EYES ON is the first media measurement system providing true commercial audiences of Out of Home advertising rather than audiences that are merely exposed to editorial content (e.g. read a magazine, read a newspaper or tuned to a TV program, etc.)

Continuity

The elimination of gaps in a media schedule by maximizing the duration of a campaign, ideally 52 weeks.

Contrast ratio

Ratio between the brightness or intensity measurement taken when the screen is displaying a blank video signal and a full, white video signal. This ratio determines the readability of the display so as to measure "depth" of an image or as a measure of how well the image can be seen in high ambient light.

Controller

Computer or computer-type device used to program and operate digital displays.

Co-Op

The sharing of advertising costs between a manufacturer and distributor or dealer.

Copy

The advertising displayed on an outdoor unit. The quality of the ad's creative design can impact the number of people who notice it (see Noticing).

Copy area

The viewing area on an outdoor unit.

Coverage

1. Based on the defined geographic parameters of a market, expressed as DMAs, CBSAs, groups of counties, or individual counties, also known as coverage area.
2. Coverage can also be the percent of the population within any of these geographic areas that can be reached by the total inventory of a media operator.

CPM - Cost Per Thousand

1. An EYES ON CPM is the cost of delivering 1000 impressions from individuals who notice the advertising on displays in a market.
2. Traditional measures used by other media do not provide EYES ON CPMs, but rather the only cost of delivering 1000 opportunities-to-see-advertising, i.e. people who may or may not see the advertising.

CPP - Cost per Gross Ratings Point

The cost of advertising exposure opportunities that equals one gross rating point in any geographically defined market or the delivery of in-market EYES ON Impressions equal to one percent of the population (gross).

Count Station

A section of road with a specific traffic pattern. Count stations contain traffic estimates and the demographic composition of that traffic. All displays assigned to a count station start with same traffic count used to determine DECs and PDECs. A display may have more than one count station based if it can be seen from more than on road.

Creative

see Copy

Creative brief

Detailed marketing objectives that pertain to the design of an outdoor campaign.

Cross-Read

An advertising display which is visible across traffic lanes on the opposite side of the roadway.

C-Store display

Point-of-purchase displays, typically the same format as transit shelter posters that are positioned at the entrance of convenience stores.

Custom Market

Any market used by a plant or advertiser other that a DMA or CBSA. Custom markets are used by plants or advertisers to highlight Out of Home delivery within relevant geographic areas. Custom markets are generally counties or groups of counties.

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D

Daily impressions

Also called DEC. The estimated number of persons passing an outdoor location on an average day.

DEC - Daily Effective Circulation

The average number of persons, in cars or other vehicles, passing and potentially exposed to an advertising display for either 12 hours (un-illuminated - 6:00am to 6:00pm), 18 hours (illuminated - 6:00am to 12:00 midnight) or 24 hours. While DECs remain a valuable measure of circulation, they are not a measure of the EYES ON audience and no longer endorsed as a buying and selling currency by the TAB.

Demographic Audiences

Target audiences used to plan, buy and sell media. EYES ON demographic target audiences include age, sex, ethnicity and income

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Dimming

Changing the brightness of a display, or the capability of increasing or decreasing the overall display intensity. The brightness level should be highest during the day to compete with daylight, and lower at night.

Display period

The interval of time when an outdoor advertising campaign is run.

Dissolve

A mode of message transition on an LED display accomplished by varying the light intensity or pattern, where the first message gradually appears to dissipate and lose legibility simultaneously with the gradual appearance and legibility of the second message.

Distribution

The strategic placement of outdoor units across a market. The distribution of units will impact the reach of the campaign and the demographic profile of the audience that is delivered.

Digital Out Of Home Media

Any Out of Home display that can change its advertising content using addressable technology.

DMA – Designated Market Area

A television market area defined by Nielsen Media Research that is also used by advertisers for multi-media planning. DMAs are non-overlapping and cover the entire United States.

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E

Efficiency

The degree of value delivered to an audience relative to it's the audience that is delivered and cost. Usually expressed as either CPM (cost per thousand) or CPP (cost per gross rating point).

Embellishment

Letters, figures, mechanical devices or lighting that is attached to the face of an outdoor unit to create a special effect.

Emerging media

Recently developed or introduced outdoor formats.

EYES ON Audience Measurement

TAB's audience measurement system for buying and selling Out of Home media. EYES ON is unique in media measurement in that it provides counts of demographic audiences actually noticing the advertising on Out of Home displays.

EOIs - EYES ON Impressions

The average number of persons who are likely to notice an ad on an OOH displays for either 12 hours (un-illuminated – 6:00 am to 6:00 pm) or 18 hours (illuminated – 6:00 am to 12 midnight). Unless specified as In-Market, EOIs include all persons who notice the unit, regardless of the origin of their trips. EOIs are reported in weekly increments.

EYES ON University

TAB's e-learning program that provides coursework relating to all the fundamentals of the EYES ON measurement system. EYES ON University is available to the public at www.eyesonratings.com.

Expected lifetime

Anticipated length of use for an LED. The expected lifetime of an LED is measured at the point when the sign has degraded to 50 percent of its original intensity. LEDs have a typical expected life of 50,000 to 100,000 hours (as specified by the manufacturer).

Exposure

(see Noticing)
The reasonable opportunities for advertising to be seen and read.

Extension

An area of copy made as a cut out that falls outside the basic restraints of a bulletin or premiere panel face.

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F

Face

The surface area on an outdoor unit where advertising copy is displayed. A structure may have more than one face.

Facing

The cardinal direction that an outdoor unit faces. As an example, a north facing bulletin is viewed by vehicles traveling south.

Fade

A mode of message transition on an LED display accomplished by varying the light intensity, where the first message gradually reduces intensity to the point of not being legible and the subsequent message gradually increases intensity to the point of legibility.

Flagging

Poster paper unattached or torn from a bulletin or poster panel face.

Flight

The length of an advertising campaign, sometimes h3ided into distinct segments over the course of weeks.

Frame

A static display screen on an LED display, or a metal attachment around the edges of a poster face.

Frame effect

A visual effect on an LED display applied to a single frame to attract the attention of viewers.

Frequency

1. The average number of times an individual notices an out of home advertising message during a defined period of time. Frequency in outdoor advertising is typically measured over a four week period, but can be reported for any campaign length.
2. For other media, it is the average number of times an individual has a opportunity to see an advertising message during a defined period of time.

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G

Gamma correction

A process used with video images to correct brightness and internal micro-contrast within the image. Gamma correction allows a change of ratio between the brightest red component and weakest red.

Gross Impressions

1. The sum of EYES ON Impressions delivered against a demographic audience for an advertising schedule. Unless specified, they include all individuals; regardless of the origins of their trips (see In-Market Impressions).
2. The Gross Impressions reported for other media are estimates of opportunity to see the advertising to rather that those who notice it.

GRPs - Gross Rating Points

The total number of In-Market EYES ON Impressions delivered by an Out of Home schedule expressed as a percentage of a market population. One rating point represents Impressions equal to 1% of the market population. In the calculation of GRPs, total EOIs must first be reduced to the In-Market EOIs of individuals who live in the defined market and are part of that market's population.

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I

Illuminated Unit

An outdoor unit equipped with lighting that provides night time illumination of an advertising message, usually from dusk until midnight. The EOIs for an illuminated unit are calculated using an 18 or 24 hour viewing period.

Impression

The number of people who have an opportunity to see an ad in a given period of time.

In- Market EOIs - In-Market Impressions

The average number of times people that live in a defined market (e.g. a DMA or CBSA) are likely to notice an ad on an OOH display. In-Market Impressions exclude Impressions derived from people who travel into or through the market, but live outside of it. In-Market Impressions are the audience from which EYES ON GRPs are calculated.

Intensity

Also called brightness. The LED industry measures display intensity in candelas per square meter, which is also referred to as nits.

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J

Junior Poster

Junior posters are located mainly in urban neighborhoods and on smaller roads. They are viewed by automobile traffic and pedestrians. Positioned just above eye level, they are either free-standing units or mounted on the sides of buildings. In some markets, select panels are mounted vertically.

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L

A standardized poster format, typically measuring 6' x 12'; formally known as an 8 Sheet.

LED brightness

The brightness level of an LED is measured in milli-candelas. The materials used to manufacture the LED determine the brightness of the LED.

LED Degradation

The standard method used to express the life of a display is the time it takes to reach 50% of its day one brightness.

Light detector

Also called light sensor. An electrical component used to detect the amount or level of ambient light surrounding a display. If dimming has been set to "AUTO," the light detector or sensor adjusts the intensity of the LEDs accordingly.

LTS - Likelihood to See

The portion of the OTS (Opportunity to See) audience who are likely to see an ad. Out Of Home is the first medium in the US to move from reporting OTS audiences (DECs) to LTS (Likely to See) audiences (EOIs) audiences which can also be referred to as commercial audiences.

Line of sight

The simultaneous viewing of more than one outdoor unit.

Location list

A listing of all locations and displays included in a specific outdoor program.

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M

Mall Displays

Backlit advertising structures located at strategic points in shopping malls; usually two or three-sided.

Markets

Geographically defined areas used to buy and sell media. Standard markets definitions are DMAs and CBSAs. Out of Home media companies and advertisers also use custom geographies based on their geographic coverage of their panel or product sales distribution areas respectively.

Media audit

A provider of syndicated local market consumer data, measuring most major U.S. DMA's. Categories surveyed are consumer retail shopping behavior, product consumption, media usage, lifestyles behavior and all demographics.

Media Mix

The combination of media types and associated audience weight levels used together to meet the objectives of a media plan (advertising campaign).

Milli-candela (mcd)

One thousandth of a candela.

Mobile billboard

A truck equipped with one or more poster panel units. The truck can either be parked at specified venues or driven around designated localities.

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N

Net reach

The total number of persons within the target audience exposed to the advertising schedule, often expressed as a percentage.

Noticing

As derived from TAB's visibility research, a physiological or behavioral measure of actual eye contact with an out of home media unit and its advertising. EYES ON audiences are derived from the adjustment of circulation or passing to those who notice the advertising.

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O

Official counts

The traffic counts taken from official (governmental) sources such as city, state or county departments of transportation.

Off-premise sign

A sign that advertises products or services that are not sold, produced, manufactured or furnished on the property where the sign is located. An outdoor display is an off-premise sign.

On-premise sign

A sign that advertises products or services that are sold, produced, manufactured or furnished on the property where the sign is located.

OTS - Opportunity to See

A basic measure of media exposure. OTS estimates are measures of media exposure (e.g. magazine readership or the TV program exposures) and not the advertising. OTS is today's standard for reporting ratings for all media types except Out Of Home. Circulation or DECs are OTS measures for Out of Home media.

Outdoor Media

The term primarily associated with billboards, street furniture, transit and alternative media.

OOH - Out Of Home Media

All media formats specifically intended to reach consumers outside the home.

Out of Home Video Networks

Place-based video networks that offer editorial content and video advertising. They include in-store, health clubs and other venues.

Override

The continuation of an outdoor advertising program beyond a contracted period. An override, if offered by an outdoor company, is provided at no additional cost to an advertiser.

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P

Percent Composition

The percent of the total audience for a display or schedule that a brand target demographic group comprise (e.g. 65% of the total EOIs for Adults 18+ were Men 24-65).

PDEC – Pedestrian Daily Effective Circulation

The average number of pedestrians passing and potentially exposed to an advertising display for either 12 hours (un-illuminated - 6:00am to 6:00pm), 18 hours (illuminated - 6:00am to 12:00 midnight), or 24 hours. While PDECs remain a valuable measure of circulation, they are not a measure of the EYES ON audience and are not endorsed as a buying and selling currency by the TAB.

Permanent bulletin

A bulletin that remains permanently located at a specified site throughout the term of a contract, usually for long periods. A permanent bulletin program can build strong brand recognition in specific market areas.

Phone kiosks

A structure that houses public telephones and offers advertising displays.

Photocell

Photoelectric cell; the light-sensitive component within a photosensor. The actual device might be a photodiode, a phototransistor, or a photoconductive cell. It is important to make a distinction between a photocell and a complete photosensor device. A photocell might be any device in which light controls the electron emission from a cathode, the electrical resistance of an element, or the electromotive force produced by a cell; it is usually incorporated in an electric circuit and used in mechanical devices such as door openers or home outdoor night lights.

Plant

A term used to identify a media company and its entire outdoor advertising inventory in a market.

Plant Defined Market

A custom market defined by a plant usually established based on the geographic coverage of its inventory.

Population

The total number of people who live within a market. The population can be segmented by key demographic groups. Populations (also referred to as universe estimates) of defined geographic areas are the bases from which rating points are calculated.

Poster

A standardized poster format, typically measuring 12'3" x 24'6"; formally known as a 30-Sheet Poster.

Posting date

The date when a poster program is scheduled to commence. A five day leeway is customary.

Posting instructions

Detailed directions provided to an outdoor company by an advertiser or agency assigning specific copy to specific locations.

Posting window

A window of five working days after a scheduled posting date in which all contracted locations can be posted without penalty.

Premiere Panel

A standardized display format, typically measuring 12' 3" x 24' 6" in overall size. Premiere panel units offer the impact of a bulletin by utilizing a single vinyl face stretched over a standard 30-sheet poster panel.

Premiere Square

A standardized display format, typically measuring 25' 5" x 24' 6" in overall size. The premiere square utilizes a single vinyl stretched over two stacked 30-sheet poster panels. In some markets, this same technique can be applied to stacked 8-sheet poster panels, typically measuring 12' 6"x 12' 1" in overall size.

Pre-ride

An in-market field check of available panels to determine locations for a specific GRP/showing.

POP - Proof-of-Performance

Certification by an outdoor company that contracted advertising services has been rendered. EYES ON audience weight (audience delivery) is an essential component of POP

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R

Rating Points

1. The total number of in-market EYES ON Impressions delivered by an Out of Home display expressed as a percentage of a market population. One rating point represents impressions equal to 1% of the market population. In the calculation of GRPs, total EOIs must first be reduced to the in-market EOIs of individuals who live in the defined market and are part of that market's population base.
2. Rating points for other media are based on opportunity to see audiences and not EYES ON audiences.

Reach

1. The approximate percentage of a target audience's population who notice an advertising message at least once during an Out of Home campaign.
2. For other media, the percentage of a target audience's population who has an opportunity to see an advertising message at least once during an advertising campaign.

Reach and Frequency

1. For Out of Home media, estimates of the number of people, within a market, who notice at least one ad in an advertising campaign – reach and the average number of times an individual will see it - frequency.
2. For other media, estimates of the number of people, within a market, who have an opportunity to see one ad in an advertising campaign – reach and the average number of times an individual might.

Refresh rate

The number of times per second the screen is updated or "repainted." Depending on the video standard, the actual image is changed only 30 times per second for NTSC signal or 25 times per second for PAL. However, most LED systems use pulse-width modulation to generate the color levels, and if the image were only "painted" once for every change, there would be a noticeable flicker on the display. A refresh rate of greater than 60 times per second will minimize the flicker. In general, LED displays should be refreshed at 120 times per second (120 Hz) or greater.

Remote control

Control of a display from a remote and/or central location via a communications network.

Ride

The physical inspection of the units that comprise an outdoor program in a market - either pre-buy or post-buy.

Rotary bulletin

A standardized 14' x 48' bulletin moved to different locations in a market at fixed intervals, usually every 60 or 90 days, to achieve greater reach in the market.

Row

A horizontal line of pixels; in print graphics, a horizontal line on a table.

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S

Saturation

The color intensity of an image. A 100% saturated color does not contain any white; adding white reduces saturation. An image without any saturation is also referred to as a grayscale image.

Scroll

A mode of message transition on an LED display where the message appears to move vertically across the display surface.

Sequence

A group of two or more frames that may consist of words, graphics or animation that are grouped together under one name. It may range in size from a few frames up to a hundred or more.

Showing

The traditional way of selling Out of Home media. A level of delivery that directly relates to the population of the market. Typical showing levels are: #100, #75, #50 and #25 GRP/Showings. The number of panels involved in an actual showing varies by market population and the average DEC of the market's inventory. As the industry migrates to the EYES ON system, this traditional definition will need to be modified to incorporate the new audience metrics.

Sign

Any structure used to display information regarding a product or service. An outdoor unit is a sign.

Snipe

An adhesive strip that is used to cover a portion of copy displayed on an outdoor unit.

Spectacular

A bulletin that is usually larger than 14' x 48' and is positioned at a prime location in a market. A spectacular often utilizes special embellishments.

Spotted Map

A map showing all locations included in a specific outdoor program.

Standardized Unit

Outdoor units constructed in accordance with the specifications established by the OAAA.

Street Furniture

Advertising displays, many that provide a public amenity, positioned at close proximity to pedestrians for eye-level viewing or at a curbside to impact vehicular traffic. Street furniture displays include, but are not limited to: transit shelters, newsstands/news racks, kiosks, shopping mall panels, convenience store panels and in-store signage.

Surface Arterials

Major streets in towns or cities that carry a heavy flow of vehicular traffic.

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T

Target Audience

In the EYES ON system, any audience reflecting the most desired consumer prospects for a product or service, defined by age, sex, race, ethnicity or income; or their combinations for any geographic definition.

Target Rating Points

1. The total number of In-market EYES ON Impressions, to a target audience, delivered by an Out of Home display expressed as a percentage of a market population. One rating point represents impressions equal to 1% of the market population. In the calculation of GRPs, total EOIs must first be reduced to the In-Market EOIs of individuals who live in the defined market and are part of that market's population.
2. For other media, Target Rating Points are based on opportunity to see audiences.

To and Through Audience

A portion of the total EOIs for a display that is comprised of people who do not live in the neighborhood but travel past the unit. The demographic characteristics of “the to and through” audience can be significantly different from those of people who live in the surrounding neighborhood.

Traffic Audit

TAB's third party verification of traffic circulation in a market. Traffic audit information is used by TAB to calculate outdoor advertising DEC figures.

Traffic Count

The recording of the vehicles and pedestrians passing a given point; used by TAB to authenticate the circulation that passes outdoor advertising structures. Traffic counts are a basic component of EYES ON measurement.

Traffic Origin

A component of EYES ON measurement, traffic origin information is used to produce to and through traffic estimates that determine the amount of total EOIs for a display derived from people who live outside of the market and those in the market.

Transit displays

Displays affixed to moving public transportation vehicles or in the common areas of transit terminals and stations. Transit displays include, but are not limited to: bus panels, train/rail panels, airport panels, taxi panels and mobile advertising signage.

Transition

A visual effect used on an LED display to change from one message to another.

Transit poster (bus)

Posters attached to the exterior of buses. Common displays are king panels, queen panels and tail panels. King panels are on the street-side of the bus. Queen panels are on the curb side of the bus. And tail panels are on the back of the bus.

Transit poster (commuter rail)

Posters displayed in commuter rail stations and on trains.

Transit shelter

A curbside structure located at regular stopping points along urban bus routes.

Travel

A mode of message transition on an LED display where the message appears to move horizontally across the display surface.

Tri-Vision

An outdoor unit with a slatted face that allows three different copy messages to revolve at intermittent intervals.

Tri-color chip

A discrete LED package containing the three colors (RGB) forming one pixel.

Total Impressions

see EOIs

TRP - Total Rating Point

Also called GRP (Gross Rating Point). The term refers to the total number of impressions delivered by a media schedule expressed as a percentage of a market population.

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U

Un-illuminated Unit

An outdoor unit that has not been equipped with lighting for nighttime illumination of an advertising message. The EOIs for an un-illuminated unit are calculated using a 12 hour viewing period.

Unit

Any outdoor advertising display.

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V

Vinyl

A single-sheet substrate on which an advertising message is rendered by computer production. Vinyl is primarily used on the face of bulletins & Premiere products.

VAIs - Visibility Adjustment Index

A ratio or the percentage of a unit's total OTS audience (DECs) who are likely to notice an ad. VAI's are derived from TAB's visibility study. The impact of common board characteristics, size, road side, distance from the road, road type, and illumination are taken into consideration. VAIs are not measures of audience.

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W

Wallscape

Murals painted or attached directly onto the exterior surface of a building.

Wavelength

The distance in a periodic wave between two points of corresponding phases. The LED's wavelength determines its color.

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